Zonke iifomati ze-eBook

iifomati ze-eBook

Los Iincwadi ze-elektroniki okanye ii-eBooks Ziye zaba yindlela ethandwayo yokufunda, nangona khange bazishiye ngokupheleleyo iincwadi zephepha. Ii-eBooks zibonelela ngokulula ngokuphatha ithala leencwadi lonke kwisixhobo esiphathwayo. Nangona kunjalo, ngeentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeefomati ze-eBook ezikhoyo, kunokuba nzima ukuqonda umahluko phakathi kwazo kwaye ukhethe eyona ifanele iimfuno zethu, into eya kukunceda ukuba ukhethe iimodeli ze-eReader ezihambelanayo.

Ke ngoko, kweli nqaku ndiza kuphonononga iifomathi ezahlukeneyo ze-eBook, kubandakanya i-EPUB, PDF, MOBI, AZW kunye nokunye. Siza kuhlalutya iimpawu ezizodwa zefomathi nganye, kunye nezinto eziluncedo kunye nezingeloncedo, phakathi kwezinye izinto...

Yintoni ifomathi ye-eBook?

Ivenkile yeMicrosoft eBook

Un eBook, elifutshane elithi "incwadi ye-elektroniki" (incwadi ye-elektroniki ngeSpanishi), yinguqulelo yedijithali yencwadi. Le fomati ivumela Abafundi bayonwabela iintlobo ngeentlobo zesicatshulwas ngokusebenzisa izixhobo zombane ezifana ne-eReaders, iikhompyutha, izixhobo eziphathwayo, njl.

Kwinqanaba lobugcisa, uhlobo lwefayile ye-eBook luthetha izinto ezininzi. Ifayile nganye inomfanekiso okhethekileyo okanye igama, elinokuguqulwa okanye linikezelwe ngokuthanda komsebenzisi okanye umdali womxholo, kunye nesandiso esigqiba ukuba luhlobo luni lwefayile kwaye yiyiphi imisebenzi eyenzayo. Umzekelo, enye yeefomati ze-eBook eyona idumileyo yi-ePUB. Le fomati isekwe kwiilwimi ezininzi ezinje ngeXHTML, iXML kunye neCSS kunye nakwinguqulelo yesithathu yeHTML5, iMathML, imizobo yeVector enobungozi (SVG) kunye neJavaScript. Ifomathi apho umxholo uphawulwe, kodwa ifomathi yayo ayinqunywanga, ngoko ke, iyakwazi ukuziqhelanisa nobukhulu beskrini obuhlukeneyo.

Ukongezelela, ifomathi inokuphazamisa ukuba ingaba ifayile eguqulwayo okanye ayikho, okanye ingaba ivumela uhlengahlengiso oluthile okanye cha, ukuhambelana kwayo ne-eReaders, njl. Ngokomzekelo, sineefayile ezinjengeefayile zemveli ze-Kindle okanye i-ePUB, iPDF okanye iifayile zePostScript ezilungisiweyo, azivumeli utshintsho kumgaqo. Ezinye ziyakwazi ukuguqulwa, njengezinye iindidi ze-.doc, .txt, njl.

Iifomathi ze-eBook ezikhoyo

Ngokuphathelele iintlobo zeefomati ze-eBook ekhoyo, kufuneka siqaqambise oku kulandelayo:

  • I-DOC / DOCX- Yenziwe nguMicrosoft kwaye inezandiso zefayile .doc kunye .docx. Yifomathi yomhleli wombhalo we-Microsoft Word kwaye apho sinokufumana khona ezinye iincwadi. Uninzi lweefayile kwifomathi yeDOC/DOCX zisebenza kakuhle xa ziguqulelwe kwii-eBooks, kodwa iifayile ezikwifomathi entsonkothileyo aziyi kuguqulwa nazo. Yeyona fomati ifanelekileyo yokubhala ii-eBooks zakho, kuba iKDP yaseAmazon iyayixhasa le fomati.
  • HTML- yenziwe nguW3C kwaye inolwandiso lwefayile .html. Yifomathi yamaphepha ewebhu kunye nazo zonke izixhobo ezinebhrawuza efakiweyo zifunde. Iyahambelana kwihlabathi liphela nazo zonke iibhrawuza zewebhu, kodwa ayilunganga ekufundeni iincwadi ze-imeyile ngenxa yokunqongophala kweempawu zokufomatha kunye noyilo.
  • RTF- Yenziwe nguMicrosoft kwaye inolwandiso lwefayile .rtf. Yeyona fomati yombhalo otyebileyo eyenziwe nguMicrosoft. Ivumela ukubandakanywa kwezitayela zesicatshulwa kunye nezinto ezifakwe ngaphakathi, kodwa azixhaswanga ngokubanzi njengezinye iifomati.
  • I-HTML ehlanganisiweyo- yenziwe nguMicrosoft kwaye inokongezwa kwefayile .chm. Lulwandiso lwefomathi yoNcedo lwe-HTML eDityanisiweyo yeMicrosoft. Ivumela ukufakwa kwesicatshulwa esityebileyo kunye nemethadatha, kodwa ayixhaswanga ngabo bonke abafundi be-e-book.
  • Djvu- Yenziwe yi-AT&T Labs kwaye inolwandiso lwefayile .djvu. Yenye indlela kwiPDF. Ngokungafaniyo noku, yazalwa njengefomati yefayile evulekileyo. Ivumela amanqakwana kunye neebhukhimakhi, kodwa ayixhaswanga ngokubanzi njengePDF.
  • iBook- yenziwe nguApple kwaye inefayile yolwandiso .ibook. Yifomathi yeencwadi ezenziwe ngeApple iBooks Author. Ijolise ekuzipapasheni kwencwadi etyetyisiweyo, enamathuba amaninzi onxibelelwano kunye nomsebenzi wentsebenziswano. Ivumela ukudalwa kweencwadi ezisebenzisanayo kunye nemultimedia, kodwa iyahambelana kuphela nezixhobo ze-iOS.
  • Microsoft Lite- Yenziwe nguMicrosoft kwaye inokwandiswa kwefayile .lit. Yifomathi efundwa nguMicrosoft Reader. Yayiyenye yeefomathi zokuqala ze-e-book kwaye yayinempumelelo kakhulu. Yayihambelana ngokubanzi nezixhobo zeMicrosoft, kodwa ayixhaswanga okwangoku.
  • BBeB- Yenziwe nguSony kwaye inezandiso zefayile .lrf kunye .lrx. Yifomathi yakudala yabafundi beSony. Yayihambelana nabafundi be-Sony, kodwa abafundi abatsha bolu phawu abasayixhasi kwaye ikhathalogu yezihloko iya kwi-ePub.
  • Umfundi wePlanga: yenziwe yiPalm Digital Media kwaye inolwandiso lwefayile .pml. Luphawu lwefomathi yolwimi oluqhelekileyo olwenziwe yiPalm Reader. Inokuvulwa nge-eReader, kodwa ayixhaswanga ngokubanzi njengezinye iifomati.
  • Vula i-eBook- yenziwe yi-Open eBook Forum kwaye inolwandiso lwefayile .opf. Yimvelaphi yee-ePubs kwaye yenza enye yezinto zayo. Yifomati esemgangathweni evunywe yi-NIST, kodwa ayixhaswanga ngokubanzi njengezinye iifomati.
  • CBA: iqhele ukusetyenziselwa amahlaya. Ukongezwa kuxhomekeke kuxinzelelo olwenziwa kwi-comic, .cba ihambelana ne-ACE1. Le fomati sisiqulathi sefayile.
  • I-CBR: yenye ifomathi eyaziwayo yee-comics. Ulwandiso lwe-.cbr luhambelana neRAR. Le fomati sisiqulathi sefayile.
  • I-CBZ: ikwasetyenziselwa iicomics. Ulwandiso lwe-.cbz luhambelana ne-ZIP. Le fomati sisiqulathi sefayile.
  • Daisy okanye DBT: yindlela yokufunda ekhethekileyo ekuvumela ukuba ufunde kwaye umamele iincwadi ngaxeshanye. Inokwenza ukufunda kube lula kubantu abane-dyslexia kunye/okanye iingxaki ezibonakalayo. Le fomati yimigangatho esekelwe kwi-XML epapashwe nguMbutho weMigangatho yoLwazi lweSizwe (i-NISO) kwaye igcinwe yi-DAISY Consortium kubantu abakhubazekileyo bokushicilela.
  • Incwadi yamabali- yifomathi ye-e-book esekwe evulekileyo ye-XML eyaqala yaza yafumana udumo eRashiya. Iifayile zeFictionBook zinolwandiso .fb2 okanye .fb3.
  • Mobipoket: yifomati yeefayile ze-e-book ezenziwe yi-Mobipocket SA. Iifayile ezinolwandiso lwe-.mobi zingasetyenziswa ziinkqubo ezisasazwe iLinux, iMac OS, iqonga leWindows.
  • I-KF8: ngumgangatho omtsha we-eBook ophuhliswe yi-Amazon evumela abashicileli, ababhali kunye namagcisa ukuba aphuhlise umxholo ngokukodwa kwi-Kindle Fire. Iifayile ezinolwandiso lwe-.azw3 ziyahambelana nale fomati.
  • Topaz: Yifomati yobunikazi ngokupheleleyo. Ayinxulumananga ne-MOBI/AZW kwaphela, nkqu ne-AZW4 esebenzisa isikhongozeli sePalm. Sisiphumo soguqulo oluzenzekelayo lwemifanekiso ebhaliweyo eskeniweyo efana nefomathi ye-DJVU.
  • PDF: imele iFayile yoXwebhu oluphathekayo, ebikade iyifomati yefayile yobunini ye-Adobe, yenye yeefomati ze-e-book ezaziwa kakhulu kwihlabathi lencwadi. Ayisetyenziselwanga kuphela amaphepha aqhelekileyo, kodwa nokudala iigali kunye neekopi zokuphonononga.
  • EPUB: Yeyona fomati ixhaphakileyo, yeyona isetyenziswa ziivenkile ezininzi ze-intanethi kwaye isetyenziswa kwiiwebhusayithi ezininzi ezithengisa iincwadi ze-elektroniki okanye ezisivumela ukuba sizikhuphele ngokusemthethweni simahla. Le fomati isekwe kwiilwimi ezininzi ezinje ngeXHTML, iXML kunye neCSS kunye nakwinguqulelo yesithathu yeHTML5, iMathML, imizobo yeVector enobungozi (SVG) kunye neJavaScript.
  • TXT: yifomati yokubhaliweyo ecacileyo nesisiseko. Ilula kakhulu kwaye iqhele ukusetyenziswa ukugcina amanqaku.
  • I-MOBI: Ngumgangatho ovulekileyo wokupapashwa kwe-e-book, nangona yathengwa yi-Amazon. I-Kindle iyakwazi ukuyifunda nje kuphela iincwadi ngaphandle kokhuseleko lwe-DRM.
  • Umseki we-Electronics: I-APABI yifomati eyilwe nguMseki we-Electronics, kwaye idume kakhulu kwii-eBooks zamaTshayina. Inokufundwa kusetyenziswa i-software ye-Apabi Reader kwaye inokuveliswa ngokusebenzisa isixhobo soMpapashi we-Apabi. Zombini iifayile ezine-.xeb kunye ne-.ceb izandiso ziguqulelwe ngokuntsonkothileyo iifayile zokubini.
  • CEB- yifomati ye-e-book yobunikazi eyenziwe nguMseki we-Electronics kwaye idumile eTshayina. Le fomati iyekisiwe.
  • IEC 62448: ngumgangatho ochaza ifomathi eqhelekileyo yopapasho lwemultimedia yombane esetyenziselwa ukutshintshiselana ngedatha yencwadi ye-elektroniki phakathi kwabalungiseleli bedatha nabapapashi.
  • INF: I-IBM yenza ifomathi ye-INF ye-e-book kwaye yayisebenzisa ngokubanzi kwi-OS/2 kunye nezinye iinkqubo zayo zokusebenza. Iifayile ze-INF bezihlala iinguqulelo zedijithali zeencwadi eziprintiweyo ezize nezinye iiphakheji ze-OS/2 kunye nezinye iimveliso. Bekukho nezinye iimpapasho ezininzi kunye neeleta zeendaba zenyanga ezifumaneka ngefomathi ye-INF. I-advanteji ye-INF kukuba i-compact kakhulu kwaye iyakhawuleza, kwaye ixhasa imifanekiso, umbhalo owenziwe ngokutsha, iitafile, kunye neefomathi zoluhlu ezahlukeneyo.
  • I-AZW- yifomati yemveli eyenziwe yiAmazon kwaye iphuhliswe ngokukodwa izixhobo zayo zeKindle. Yifomathi yobunini eyodwa yezi ncwadi ze-elektroniki.
  • I-AZW3– Ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-Kindle Format 8, yifomati yemveli eyenziwe yiAmazon kwaye iphuhliswe ngokukodwa izixhobo zayo ze-Kindle. Yifomathi yobunini eyodwa yezi ncwadi ze-elektroniki.
  • KFX: yifomati ye-eBook eyenziwe ngohlobo lwe-Kindle Format 10 (KF10), i-Amazon elandela ifomathi ye-AZW3 (Kindle 8). Iqulethe i-eBook ye-Amazon, equka isicatshulwa kunye nemethadatha echaza incwadi, njengombhali, isihloko, kunye nenani lamaphepha.
  • PRC: Yenye ifomathi ye-e-book enokufundwa ukuba nje ingenalo ukhuseleko lwe-DRM.
  • PKG: Iifayile ezinolwandiso lwe-.pkg, ezibizwa ngokusemthethweni njengeNewton Digital Book, yifayile yephakheji yeNewton enye enokuqulatha iincwadi ezininzi (umzekelo, zonke iincwadi ezintathu zetrilogy zinokupakishwa kunye).
  • I-OPF (Vula i-Packet Format)- yifomathi yefayile yeXML enokuthi iqulathe imagazini yedijithali okanye olunye upapasho. Ibandakanya imethadatha echaza umxholo kunye noluhlu lwamaphepha, imifanekiso, kunye nombhalo okhankanywe kwisithuba.
  • Umdibanisi-yiwebhu engaxhunyiwe kwi-intanethi kunye ne-e-ncwadi yokufunda yezixhobo eziphathwa ngesandla ezisekelwe kwiPalm OS, izixhobo zeWindows Mobile, kunye nezinye iiPDA. I-Plucker iqulethe izixhobo zePOSIX, imibhalo, kunye “nemibhobho” esebenza kwiLinux, Mac OS X, Windows, kunye ne-Unix. Kwaye, ngokuqinisekileyo, inefomathi yayo. ngolwandiso lwe-.pdb. Iifayile zePDB aziboneleli ngoLawulo lwamaLungelo eDijithali (i-DRM), ngoko ke zixhasa ii-eBooks ezingahlawulelwayo.
  • PS (PostScript): lulwimi lwenkcazelo yephepha kunye nolwimi lokuprograma olusekwe kwizitaki ezichwetheziweyo. Isetyenziswa kakhulu kwi-electronic and desktop publishing arena.
  • CEO- I-.pdg ifomathi yencwadi yedijithali isetyenziswa yinkampani yethala leencwadi yedijithali eyaziwayo SSReader eTshayina. Yi-raster yobunikazi kunye nefomathi yoxinzelelo lomfanekiso obophelelayo, kunye neemodyuli ze-plugin ze-OCR zokufunda.
  • I-RTF (iFomathi Yombhalo Otyebileyo): Iyilwe nguMicrosoft, le fomati ivumela umbhalo ukuba ufomathwe kwaye unokuguqulwa ngokulula kwezinye iifomati ze-eBook ezifana ne-EPUB.
  • I-TEI Lite- kukwenziwa ngokwezifiso kwethegi ye-TEI, eyilelwe ukuhlangabezana "ne-90% yeemfuno ze-90% yoluntu lwabasebenzisi be-TEI." Ngenxa yokulula kwayo kunye nenyaniso yokuba inokufundwa ngokulula, iye yamkelwa ngokubanzi, ngakumbi ngabaqalayo kunye neeprojekthi ezinkulu zamaziko ezithembele kumaqela amakhulu eekhowudi zokumakisha amaxwebhu abo.
  • TakeRaider-Ifomati ye-eBook enokuvulwa kuzo zombini izixhobo zeWindows kunye nezixhobo eziphathwa ngesandla ezifana ne-Android, iPalm OS, kunye ne-EPOC.
  • I-OpenXPS: Vula iNkcazo yePhepha le-XML, kunye .xps okanye .oxps izandiso kumgangatho wehlabathi weECMA-388, ophuhliswe nguMicrosoft, ochaza uyilo kunye nenkangeleko ebonakalayo yephepha ngalinye loxwebhu. Ngokusekwe kwi-XML, ixhasa isixhobo kunye nokuzimela kwesisombululo. Nangona yaziswa njengenye indlela kwiPDF, inkxaso yomsebenzisi kunye nokuqhelana neefayile zeXPS zilinganiselwe.

Kukho ezinye, kwaye njengoko iteknoloji ihambela phambili, kuya kubonakala ngakumbi. Kodwa ezi zezona zidumileyo…

Ngaba kunokwenzeka ukuguqula phakathi kweefomathi ze-eBook?

I-MacOS Caliber

Ewe, kuyenzeka ukuguqula phakathi kweefomathi ezahlukeneyo ze-eBook. Nantsi ingcaciso yendlela eyenziwa ngayo:

  • I-Caliber: yinkqubo yemithombo esimahla nevulekileyo evumela uguqulo lwee-eBooks phakathi kwefomathi ezahlukeneyo. Ukusebenzisa iCaliber, utsala kwaye ulahle ii-eBooks kwinkqubo. Emva koko, cofa ekunene kwincwadi ekhethiweyo kwaye uhambise ngaphezulu kwecandelo elithi "Guqula Iincwadi". Ukuba ufuna ukuguqula enye kuphela, cofa "Guqula ngokwahlukileyo", ukuba ufuna ukuguqula ezininzi, khetha "Guqula ngobuninzi".
  • izixhobo ze-intanethi- Kukho izixhobo ezininzi ze-intanethi ezivumela ukuguqulwa kwe-eBook, njenge-Aspose kunye ne-Ebook2Edit. Ezi zixhobo zidla ngokuba lula kakhulu ukuzisebenzisa: ulayisha ngokulula i-eBook yakho okanye uxwebhu, khetha ifomathi ye-eBook kwimenyu eyehlayo, uze ucofe u-“Qala” ukuqalisa uguqulo lwe-eBook.
Gcina ukhumbula ukuba ezinye iifomati zezanini kwaye zine-DRM okanye ukhuseleko. Umzekelo luphawu lwemveli, kwaye ukuba ufuna ukuguqulela kwezinye iifomati, kuya kufuneka uqale usebenzise izixhobo ezithile ezaphula loo DRM kwaye ushiye ifayile simahla ukuze iguqulelwe kwezinye iifomati.

Kubalulekile ukuba uqaphele ukuba Umgangatho woguqulo unokwahluka ngokuxhomekeke yobunzima be-eBook kunye nemvelaphi kunye nefomathi yokusingwa. Ezinye iifomati zisenokungaxhaswa zizo zonke izixhobo zoguqulelo. Ke ngoko, kungafuneka uzame izixhobo ezahlukeneyo okanye uhlengahlengise iisetingi zakho zokuguqula ukuze ufumane ezona ziphumo zintle. Kwaye, kwiimeko ezininzi, okunye ukusebenza okanye ukuguquguquka kunokulahleka ...


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